«Мир на кончиках пальцев»

«Ум ребенка находится на кончиках его пальцев»

В. А. Сухомлинский.

«Рука – это инструмент всех инструментов» Аристотель.

«Руки – это своего рода внешний мозг» Кант.

В жизни человека существует недолгий, но поистине уникальный период, когда детский мозг запрограммирован на интенсивное формирование и обучение. Стало модным развивать малыша с пеленок. Но педагоги – психологи, сторонники традиционных методов, считают, что гораздо важнее помочь детям легче и комфортнее освоиться в том жизненном пространстве, которое их окружает, нежели нагружать раньше срока лишними знаниями. Как же быть? Просто играть с ребенком. Это самое благодарное времяпрепровождение.

С раннего детства малышей привлекают всевозможные предметы. Им важно трогать, нанизывать, вынимать, переворачивать, катать и бросать все, что попадется на глаза. В этом возрасте ребенком правит ее величество манипуляция. Манипуляция – это различные действия с предметами, которые помогают маленьким исследователям узнать, изучить их свойства, а вместе с тем постигать и себя. В результате этого важного процесса формируются определенные представления о предметном мире, совершенствуется рука ребенка – один из важных органов, дающий толчок развитию мышления и речи.

К двум годам у ребенка появляется желание все сделать самому, поэтому часто родители слышат«Я сам». Чем больше ребенку будет предоставлена возможность проявить себя, тем лучше будет развиваться его мозг, стимулироваться развитие речи, творческие способности, фантазия.

Задача педагогов и родителей – обеспечить детей 2-4 лет всем необходимым для игры – манипуляции, предложить малышам совместную с нами, взрослыми, игру – манипуляцию. Для этого создается соответствующая предметно-развивающая среда: формы с вкладышами, игрушки для нанизывания, вдевания, разрезные картинки, мозаика, шнуровки, баночки с горлышком различной толщины для вкладывания мелких предметов и т. д.

Занимаясь с ребенком манипуляцией, взрослый обязательно должен проговаривать свои действия и побуждать к этому ребенка. Задания должны приносить ребенку радость, нельзя допускать скуку и переутомление.

Простые движения помогают убрать напряжение не только в самих руках, но и расслабить всего тела. Они способны улучшить произношение многих звуков. Почему это так? Дело в том, что рука имеет самое большое «представительство» в коре головного мозга, поэтому развитию кисти принадлежит важная роль в формировании головного мозга и становлении речи. И именно поэтому словесная речь ребенка начинается, когда движения его пальчиков достигают достаточной точности. Ручки ребенка как бы подготавливают почву для последующего развития речи. Кроме того, целью занятий по развитию ловкости и точности пальцев рук является развитие взаимосвязи между полушариями головного мозга и синхронизация их работы. В правом полушарии мозга у нас возникают различные образы предметов и явлений, а в левом они вербализируются, то есть находят словесное выражение, а происходит этот процесс благодаря «мостику» между правым и левым полушариями. Чем крепче этот мостик, тем быстрее и чаще по нему идут нервные импульсы, активнее мыслительные процессы, точнее внимание, выше способности. Чтобы ребенок хорошо разговаривал, быстро и легко учился, ловко выполнял любую работу, самую тонкую работу, — с раннего детства нужно развивать его рукупальцы и кисть.

В младшем дошкольном возрасте идет активное обучение действиям с предметами, а старшем дошкольном возрасте стоит задача – доведение этих действий до автоматизма. Для этого воспитатель и родители должны планировать работу по развитию мелкой моторики в специально организованной деятельности, совместной деятельности и создавать условия в повседневной деятельности детей.

В старшем дошкольном возрасте появляется больше возможностей для развития мелкой моторики рук. Дети взрослеют, и в совместной деятельности по художественному труду, рисованию, работе с ножницами, самообслуживанию они могут проявить свои способности. Для развития мелкой моторики в повседневной жизни для детей старших групп так же создаются условия в предметно-развивающей среде.

Великолепным инструментом для развития руки и кисти ребенка являются пальчиковые игры. О пальчиковых играх можно говорить как о великолепном универсальном, дидактическом и развивающем материале. Методика и смысл данных игр состоит в том, что нервные окончания рук воздействуют на мозг ребенка и мозговая деятельность активизируется. Эти игры являются хорошими помощниками для того, чтобы подготовить руку ребенка к письму, развить координацию. А так как в большинстве пальчиковых игр применяются стишки, потешки, считалки, параллельно развивается и речь ребенка. Благодаря пальчиковым играм ребенок получает разнообразные сенсорные впечатления, у него развивается внимательность и способность сосредотачиваться, что пригодится для успешного обучения в школе.

Пальчиковые игры могут применяться при проведении физминуток. В ходе физминутки детям предлагается как бы «сконструировать» из пальцев различные предметы и объекты. Дети изображают зайцев, собак, кошек, деревья и т. д. Такая игровая деятельность вызывает у детей интерес и эмоциональный настрой, что позволяет предельно мобилизовать их внимание.

В старших и подготовительных группах дети под руководством воспитателей в тетрадях в клетку начинают выполнять различные задания: рисуют палочки, дуги, овалы, круги и т. д.

Это очень тонкая и сложная для детей работа, то есть идет подготовка руки к письму. Письмо – это сложный навык, включающий выполнение тонких координированных движений руки. Техника письма требует слаженной работы мелких мышц кисти и всей руки, а так же хорошо развитого зрительного восприятия и произвольного внимания. Поэтому в дошкольном возрасте важно развивать механизмы, необходимые для накопления ребенком двигательного и практического опыт, развития навыков ручной умелости.

Воспитатели 2 младшей группы «Ромашка»:

Новоселова Е.В., Пахомова Т.В.

 

Запись опубликована в рубрике Фотогалерея. Добавьте в закладки постоянную ссылку.

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