Буллинг в детском саду. Что это?

Буллинг –  это система детского насилия,  реализуемого в пространстве организованного или неорганизованного детского сообщества, например в группе детского сада.

В этой системе определяются роли обидчиков  (притеснителей),  обижаемых (притесняемых) и наблюдателей – взрослых и детей. Таким образом,  каждая ситуация буллинга, может раскрываться одновременно в трех плоскостях: насильственности, жертвенности, пассивного наблюдения.

Соответственно этому ставятся вопросы о том,  кто такие юные насильники и их юные жертвы?  Какие условия способствуют появлению тех и других? Как дети становятся насильниками и жертвами?

Ответы на вопросы выглядят следующим образом: Потенциально жертвой или насильником может стать любой ребёнок при стечении определенных жизненных обстоятельств. Тем не менее, юные насильники — это преимущественно уверенные в себе, склонные  к доминированию и подчинению других,  морально и физически сильные дети. Кто круче, сильнее, наглее – тот и прав. В противоположность этому жертвы –  обычно те дети,  которым свойственны крайняя неуверенность в себе,  особая чувствительность к жизненным стрессам,  неспособность сопротивляться насилию, неумение постоять за себя и склонность к подчинению.

  • Условия возникновения буллинга предполагают:

✓ Предшествующие обстоятельства.  Например,  появление в группе проблемного и агрессивного ребёнка.

✓ Запускающие моменты. Например, конфликт между двумя воспитанниками.

✓ Внешние поводы,  исполняющие роль формальных провокаторов: особенности детей – потенциальных жертв:

✓ По внешнему виду:  полные,  худые,  высокие,  низкие,  имеющие веснушки и родимые пятна,  аномалии –  неправильный прикус,  косоглазие,  парезы,  костные деформации и т.д.

✓ По манере речи и поведению: шепелявость, заикание, косноязычие, эффект речевой каши; гиперактивные, заторможенные, замкнутые, провоцирующие.

✓ По имиджу: нелепо одевающиеся, пользующиеся старыми вещами, запущенные и грязные.

✓ По наличию функциональных недостатков:  приступов,  истерик,  страхов, навязчивостей,  затяжных плачей, «глаза на мокром месте»,  непроизвольное отхождение газов при метеоризме, энурез, слабое зрения  («очкарик»).

✓ По результатам достижений:  слабый ученик, неумеха, неспособный к занятиям,  недисциплинированный, ( в группе детского сада данный пункт во многом зависит от отношения взрослого к ребёнку)

✓ По социальному происхождению: богач — бедняк, из благополучной семьи или неблагополучной, из полной семьи – от матери- одиночки, семейный ребенок – сирота и т.д.

✓ По этнокультурным особенностям: иной религии, иной расы, иных возможностей в полноценном владении языком и культурой новой родины.

✓ Мотивы насильника: наказать, отомстить, удивить, поразить, разрядиться, «приколоться», показать преимущество, специально унизить, запугать.

✓ Дополнительные факторы: образовательная, коммуникативная, дисциплинарная и общая неадаптивность в дошкольном учреждении, сложная семейная ситуация, воспитательская неадекватность, обремененность поведенческими нарушениями, психическими расстройствами и соматическими заболеваниями, потребность в особых нуждах.

  • Что необходимо для окончательного становления буллинга и закрепления ролей насильника и жертвы:

✓ Жертва неспособна к сопротивлению, она полностью беззащитна, она принуждаема

✓ Поддерживающие роль сторонних наблюдателей взрослые не вмешиваются в ситуацию буллинга или по незнанию,  или от неумения,  или по идейным соображениям. Или плохо вмешиваются, имитируют деятельность.

✓ Дети –  пассивные наблюдатели.  В душе сочувствуют жертве,  но одновременно радуются, что это происходит не с ними…

✓ Мотивация насильника должна сохраняться продолжительное время.

Каждый раз,  говоря о процессе буллинга,  нужно помнить,  что обычно речь не идёт о единственных детях,  пострадавших от насилия.

Они могут очень быстро перевестись родителями в другие коллективы,  и для них этот процесс будет прерван.  Но буллинг —  это система,  это своеобразная социально- психологическая  «зараза»  в детском сообществе. И на место ушедшей жертвы обязательно, рано или поздно, станет другая. И это будет происходить столько времени,  сколько не будут предприниматься реальные меры в отношении буллинга взрослыми.

  • Принципы работы с проблемой буллинга:
  1. Конфиденциальность.
  2. Этапность  (изучение ситуации,  подготовка сообщества,  согласие

участников, выработка программы помощи, её реализация и оценка).

  1. Отказ от обвинений кого- либо из взрослых в допущении случаев буллинга.
  2. Категорический запрет на любое насилие в группе («Скажи насилию нет!»).
  3. Комплексность (учет всех аспектов).
  4. Междисциплинарный (представители разных профессий) принцип работы.
  5. Индивидуальный подход в каждом случае буллинга.
  6. Смещение акцента для обидчиков с наказания на их реабилитацию  (за исключением опасности для других и нарушителей закона).

Пространство детской жестокости в сообществах обширно.  Её проявления различны. Тем не менее,  стратегия профилактики предполагает ежедневную, кропотливую работу на всех уровнях жизни общества. А начинается все тогда, когда ребёнок попадает в первый в своей жизни детский коллектив и пытается выстраивать отношения/подчинять себе вокруг копошащихся детишек…

Педагог-психолог МКДОУ «Детский сад № 14 «Звёздочка» Абрамова К.Е.

Запись опубликована в рубрике Фотогалерея. Добавьте в закладки постоянную ссылку.

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