Формирование математических представлений в процессе ознакомления детей с природой окружающего мира

Методика формирования элементарных математических представлений у детей в детском саду связана со многими науками, и прежде всего с теми, предметом изучения которых являются разные стороны личности и деятельности ребенка-дошкольника, процесс его воспитания и обучения.

В дошкольном возрасте обучение детей математике должно включаться в другую деятельность и осуществляться в такой деятельности, в ходе которой ребенок учится познавать окружающий мир, причем эта деятельность может не быть специально организованной и не протекать в определённом порядке и режиме.

Математика нужна детям для ежедневной ориентировки в окружающем мире. Поэтому математика должна быть представлена в разнообразных видах деятельности. Познание окружающего мира через взаимосвязь разных явлений, отношений является наиболее интересным и полезным для детей. Организуя процесс обучения дошкольников математике, необходимо учитывать, что дети каждый день неоднократно встречаются с математическими отношениями, и почти все математические представления, которые получают дети дошкольного возраста, имеют практическое применение. Поэтому математические представления необходимо формировать ежедневно, каждый раз обращая внимание детей на новые математические отношения и побуждая их использовать имеющиеся знания.

По мнению П. Г. Саморуковой основными направлениями формирования у детей систематизированных знаний о природе являются:

  • Формирование системы знаний о совокупности растений и животных, занимающих территорию с характерным ландшафтом (лес, луг, поле и т.д.).
  • Классификация растений и животных по основным признакам внешнего вида и характеру взаимодействия со средой (животные — звери, птицы, рыбы, насекомые и т.д.; растения — деревья, кусты, травы и т.д.).
  • Формирование системы знаний о сезонных изменениях в природе .

Для формирования всех этих знаний педагог использует различные формы работы: занятия, экскурсии, целевые прогулки, наблюдение в повседневной жизни. Значимое место отводится детским наблюдениям за природой, природными явлениями, самонаблюдению, экспериментированию, опытам, играм. Чтобы расширить познания детей о временах года, воспитатель проводит занятия о характерных явлениях в природе в разное время года. На  всех занятиях, прогулках, экскурсиях, в играх возможно и решение дидактических задач по формированию математических представлений.

Находясь в естественных «природных» условиях, ребенку легче усвоить конкретные математические понятия, так как он сам является частью природы и действует по ее законам. На самом деле, как просто детям усвоить, что листочков на дереве много, а дерево — одно в процессе наблюдения; или измерить длину лесной тропинки условными мерками — шагами.

Нельзя не согласиться с мнением С. Бритун о том, что для формирования элементарных математических представлений важно использовать предметы, которые не изготавливаются специально.

Во-первых, это экономит средства.

Во-вторых, способствует связи обучения с реальной повседневной жизнью, что, в свою очередь, помогает детям осознать, зачем они «изучают математику», а сам процесс обучения превращает в игру.

В-третьих, использование таких средств обучения облегчает подготовку воспитателей к занятиям, исключая изготовление наглядного дидактического материала, высвобождая тем самым время для более качественной методической подготовке. С таких позиций очень действенным становится формирование математических представлений в процессе ознакомления детей с природой окружающего мира.

В ходе ознакомления детей с растениями, животными, предметами мебели, посуды, одежды, разными видами транспорта можно решать в комплексе все дидактические задачи по предматематическому развитию.

Воспитатели 2 младшей группы «Ромашка»:

Новоселова Е.В., Пахомова Т.В.

Запись опубликована в рубрике Фотогалерея. Добавьте в закладки постоянную ссылку.

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